It’s hard to keep some occupational diseases for a long time, and it’s also about history. When Mr. Fu Sinian shouted that "history is historical material science", he may not expect that the professional historians who speak Chinese today are more or less suffering from "historical sensitivity syndrome". People like this, if they read Mr. Huang Yinong’s new work, "Two-Headed Snake," I am afraid that it is not only "sensitive" but also "crazy." In the words of Mr. He Bingzhen, the materials cited in this book have reached 1,099 kinds, and the number of them is a record of the history of the founding of the country. In the book, Mr. Yi Nong proposed that “the era of e-tests is coming soon”. Although it seems that in this era, the workload of scholars has to be reduced a lot. However, "Two-Headed Snake" is not a long-term compilation of information, nor is the author's intention to show off his knowledge of the flooding of the arch, it will tell Is the story of a group of people, this is the "first generation of Catholics in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties".

The exchange of Chinese and Western cultures has become a "discipline" in the past decade, and the Catholic missionaries and natives in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties, as the "pioneer characters" of modern Chinese and Western contacts, are more talked about. There are still a lot of people who are not separated from "Ricatin" in three sentences. Like many fields, the surface seems to be "prosperous" and then "hot", but it is often a sign that the inside is thin and poor and stepping into the bottleneck. Mentioned missionaries, often concentrated in the Jesuits "Luo (Ming Jian), Li (Ma Dou), Tang (Ruowang), South (Huairen)", said that local religious people, often can not escape Xu Guangqi, Li Zhizao and Yang Tingzhuo are the "three pillars". This is not a rare phenomenon. It is not a sensible narrative attitude to take a few famous people to sum up a fairly large group. It is only a temporary strategy, not a satisfactory end point. Mr. Huang Yinong has searched and collected information for many years, and wrote this book in the way of Chen Hao’s so-called “exhaustion and fishing”. It is precisely to find a full case to make a true “panoramic” display.

The title of the book "Two-headed Snake" is easy to think of the legend of Sun Shuxi in the Spring and Autumn Period, and the author here is inspired by a poem by Sun Yuanhua, a Catholic of the late Ming Dynasty: Yuanhua saw a two-headed snake at home, see The "two ends of the first mouse", one head to the south and want to go north, and each other's elbows, suddenly feel the same with the poem. The Catholics in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties were such a group of "two-headed snakes", squatting between Jesus and Confucianism, stepping into contradictions and predicaments from time to time. Although it is not the best for the Jesuit missionaries, such as Matteo Ricci, he first wore a robes when he first entered China, and later changed to Confucianism, in order to increase his affinity, and wrote a large number of words explaining the two classics, reducing Catholicism and The conflict between local Confucianism and Buddhism concepts, and the chances of coincidence, the end of the Ming Dynasty is an era of landslides and active thoughts. The Catholic Church has indeed attracted some scholars for a while, but the problems and resistances encountered have become larger and larger. The Chinese and Western civilizations have long been a long-distance, and even the exchanges of utensils and habits are struggling, not to mention the highly exclusive religion. Later, even the missionaries of the West came to the anxiety of the "two-headed snake." On the one hand, some conflicts of consciousness and consciousness are not only unsuccessful, but gradually sharpened. For example, the market-oriented Mencius goodness and the Catholic concept of original sin are contrary to each other, and more like the ancestral rituals of the people who are used to it. The Catholic Church opposes the fierce confrontation of idolatry; on the other hand, the interior of the Holy See is the strictness of the purity of the missionary work, and has always strongly opposed this position of reconciliation and compromise. The attack of the two sides of power finally broke out in the "ceremonial dispute" of Kangxi years, and then the ban was issued. The Catholic Church, which had never been disadvantaged, still got a slap in China.

The big narrative has been established. Mr. Yi Nong's textual research is accurate, and the excavation of the characters is exhaustive, but it has not changed the above-mentioned clues. However, one person has always had many faces in life, and the big narrative often emphasizes only one of them. The most attractive, or most contributing, part of the "Two-Headed Snake" is to show more aspects of the lives of Catholics. In addition to the "disease of knowing", it reveals a lot more specific, but sometimes more Contradictions that determine meaning, such as Nayong. Among the traditional concepts, "Guangzi" is the basis of filial piety, and Nayong is the most direct means of "Guangzi", although it is stipulated in the law that "there are more than forty people in the Republic of China". However, those who do not keep this in the official class are everywhere. Even Nayong has entered the social customs, and officials have gone to work in the field. Because of the loneliness and boring, there are many people who buy it. However, according to the Catholic rules, Labuan was not allowed and was regarded as a felony, but it violated the "Ten Commandments" sixth. Before Xu Bingqi was baptized into the teachings, he immediately said to the priest Luo Ruwang that "there is no difficulty in defending the Tao, and he is not a single one." Because he had only one son and no grandchildren at that time, he gave up the idea of Nayong under the persuasion of Luo. And enter the education. Xu’s situation is still quite satisfactory. The other two Li Zhizao and Yang Tingzhuo of the “Three Pillars” did not immediately be baptized after they entered the teachings. The reason was that both of them had already been punished before, and finally they had to “disturb” with them. To teach. Of course, there are far more than these three problems in the encounter with the Nazi problem. They are only the most determined and sincere representatives of the Faith. The rest are both blamed and blamed after Xu Bian’s baptism. There are also like Feng Yingjing and Xiong Mingyu. The pro-teachers who are quite familiar with Western learning have not been taught for life because of their previous embarrassment. However, those who are determined to be educated, how to deal with what has already been done, are different. They are given to the two directly sent by the silver. They have to pay tribute to each other and have to send them to relatives and friends. After his wife was born, he was right. There are quite a lot of people in the circle of scholars, and the joys and sorrows of the past and the present are really impossible to say.
Although it is difficult to send a defamation, it is still a private matter, and the scholar-officials are cited as the fundamental feelings of the home country, and they cannot escape the trial of the Catholic Church. At the time of the death, some religious officials intended to show their loyalty to the country and committed suicide, but suicide was not allowed by the Catholic canon. It is no wonder that the famous believer Wang Zheng, after the hunger strikes himself, the friend has to call it a murder. If you die, you can't leave a clear reputation. If the two snakes are really in heaven, they don't know whether they are smiling or bitter.

references:

Huang Yinong: "Two-headed Snakes - The First Generation of Catholics in the Late Ming and Early Qing Dynasties", Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, August 2006.

 

(This article was originally published in "Readings." Reprinted without the author's authorization. Text editors have appropriate modifications to the article. If the original author has objections, please contact the New York Shushan Institute.)

Lushan Institute of Art

This issue is edited: Xiaohui Ruoyu

Text editing: teeth

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