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Four kilometers from the outer seas of Kedah in the northwest of Malaysia, there is a beautiful tropical island, which is known as Penang, a state in Malaysia. It used to be an important base for the early immigrants of Fujian and Guangdong, and it was also the place where the ancestors of the famous people, Qi Hongming and Zhen Zhenduo, in the modern history.

I. Li Lihuan, Penang Island, the first meeting of the British

The English name Penang of Penang, the Chinese name was first seen in the "Zhenghe Nautical Chart" included in "Wu Beizhi" published by Chongzhen during the Ming Dynasty. These charts are the road maps of the sea used by Zheng He's fleet under the Western Sea. Since the Chinese merchants had already traveled to Kedah in the Tang Dynasty, the Chinese merchant ships had already arrived in the island long before Zheng He sailed to the Indian Ocean countries.

However, Penang, a small island of less than 300 square kilometers, was still a sparsely populated island until the late eighteenth century, under the jurisdiction of the Kedah Sultan (the name of the early Malay states rulers). At that time, the Sudan was old, and several sons refused to accept his designated heir, Tunku Abdullah, and joined forces to fight. The Tunku Abdullah was single-handed and sent people to the British East India Company in Aceh (now Sumatra to the west end of Indonesia) for help in 1771. A local British captain, FrancisLight, took the staff to Kedah to assist and obtained the right to use the Kedah port. The following year, the British gained the jurisdiction of Kedah Port.

In 1778, Tunku Abdullah succeeded to Kedah Sultan. After his assassination, he was in a relationship with Myanmar and Siam. He also promised to hand over the jurisdiction of Penang under the administration to the British government and approved Wright to live in Penang and establish trade. stronghold. This is the beginning of the British entry to Penang, and Wright was appointed as the chief of the British East India Company in Penang.

Wright landed in Penang in 1786. The first person to meet him after landing was a Chinese citizen who lived in Kedah. He mentioned the surname of the Chinese. Now people know that he may be few, but it is a Chinese in Penang. The founder of society, among his descendants, also appeared in household names such as Qi Hongming and Zhen Zhenduo. All of this began with the meeting between Li Lihuan and Wright. Even in the history of the modern Chinese family, the legendary nature is extremely rare.

Regarding the origin of Yan Lihuan, according to the study of local cultural and historical personnel in Tong'an, Fujian, it is said to be in Tongan (now Xiamen). His surname is Chen. His father Chen Dunyuan lost his hand after a drink and fled with his family to a small fishing boat. Siam, after the transfer to settle in Kedah. In order to express his remorse for alcoholism and murder, he changed the surname of Chen to his surname, and since then he has been surnamed. However, the descendants of the family, including Zhen Zhenduo, believed that they were in Hui'an, Quanzhou, and Hui'an had a surname, which was renamed by Lin in the Tang Dynasty. Whether the family is from Tongan or Hui'an is probably difficult to say at the moment.

When Wright first arrived in Penang, there were only 58 residents on the island. Yan Lihuan did not live on the island at the time, but his mind moved faster. It was expected earlier than others that the British would need to enrich the population and trade, so when Wright and his sailors boarded Penang on July 17. The next day, a few Indians came to the island from Kyrgyzstan, visited the British, and gave them rice and fishing nets. This meeting obviously makes Wright grateful for the new environment eager to find someone to help, can imagine how much promise that Li Lihua got from his mouth. A week later, Yan Lihuan moved from Kyrgyzstan to Penang with a family member and settled down.

Driven by Li Lihuan, some Minnan merchants came to this newly developed island to find new opportunities from all over the world, from Malacca and Minnan, where many Fujian immigrants lived. Wright placed his ruling center at the northeast corner of the island, and Lie Huan and his family were placed in the southeast corner for commercial activities and planting. In order to attract customers from all over the world, Wright designed Penang as the world's first free trade port and did not levy taxes on goods. This innovative concept has attracted a large number of Chinese merchants and attracted many Chinese immigrants. By 1794, the local Chinese population had increased to 3,000.

However, the tax on goods is not levied. It is just like modern big shopping malls that attract customers to the door with commodity discounts. Customers must take extra money to pay for them after they come to the door. Wright’s approach is to encourage Chinese to absorb opium and gambling, and then to tax smokers and gamblers. He said that Chinese people are a source of income and must use their hobbies to increase their income. Therefore, the island's smokehouses and gambling bureaus are everywhere. He also introduced the way for the Dutch to manage China in Indonesia, setting up the so-called Chinese “Kapitan” (meaning “the first person”) to govern the Chinese with Chinese. This Chinese leader is not only responsible for maintaining the security of the Chinese community and resolving disputes between them, but more importantly, contracting the collection of Chinese cigarettes, gambling and alcohol taxes. After the proceeds are turned over according to a certain amount, the rest will be owned by others. This kind of practice is called the Hummer system. The British rulers do not spend a penny and a manpower to obtain the source income from the Chinese. The Chinese contractor, the so-called Kapitan, although the small head is drawn, Moreover, it is subject to the British's drive, but in front of the Chinese, the status is superior, and the scenery is extraordinary. The first Kapitan was the first to welcome the British.

Yan Lihuan served as the Chinese Kapidan since 1787. He died in 1826. The income of the Hummer system has made his family rich and wealthy. He has two Malay Aboriginal women as his wife and has eight sons. Three women. In the local area, the mixed-race sons born to Chinese and indigenous women are called “峇峇” (Baba), and the mixed-race daughter is called “Nyonya”. Therefore, his children are “峇峇” and “Nyonya”. The third son, An Ping, was sent back to China to study. After the examination, he was an official in Lin Zexu. He was later appointed to Taiwan. His grandson Yan Xianrong was the leader of the Japanese occupation army when Taiwan was cut after the Sino-Japanese War. Taipei City is regarded as a traitor by the Taiwanese and the father of the first celebrity who participated in cross-strait talks.

2. Yan Xianrong, who flies under the Japanese

Yan Xianrong was born in Lukang County, Changhua County in 1866. Here is the place where the Qing army in the Qianlong period landed in the Pingding Heaven and Earth Society of Taiwan. Yan Xianrong’s father, Qin Qin, was a single biography. He passed away when he was over one year old. He was raised by his mother. At this time, his family’s presence in Taiwan is no longer the same. The family has three people (Zhi Xianrong has a brother, but died young) Often only porridge can be eaten, so Yan Xianrong went out to work, worked hard, worked as a bearer, subsidized the family, and later went to Taipei to engage in cargo shipping between Lukang and Keelung, and married a deer. The Hong Kong woman is married and has three daughters and adopted a boy.

In 1895, the Japanese army landed in Keelung. At that time, the Taipei City officials left because of the Qing Dynasty officials. Some local gentry did not dare to organize forces to stabilize the social order. It is proposed to send representatives to discuss the situation and the Japanese army went to the city to maintain law and order, but could not find anyone. Going to Keelung to see the Japanese, Yan Xianrong volunteered to go with the petition and saw the appointment of the first Taiwan Governor Huashan, and introduced the Japanese to Taipei. This is the turning point of his life.

When Yan Xianrong voluntarily introduced the actions of the Japanese, it was impossible to learn from his ancestors. However, the Japanese can succeed in winning Taipei's success, but Yan Xianrong is the first. According to a description of the biography of "Zhen Xiang Han Mei" published by Taipei, Zhai Zhenduo believes that this is "the right to respond to the right", in exchange for the restoration of social order in Taipei; his father has struggled inside, and I have a strong sense of nationality. I have always insisted on not learning Japanese, not changing my Japanese name, and always reminding my son not to forget that he is Chinese. Perhaps because of the compensation for his father's accusations by future generations, the last major event in Zhen Zhenduo's life was a brave first step in the negotiations between Taiwan and the mainland in 1993. The paradox of history is also here.

In sharp contrast to the successful entry into Taipei City, the Japanese army encountered strong resistance in other parts of Taiwan. In the area of Hsinchu and Miaoli, the first violent ambushes of spontaneous local armed forces such as Xu Wei, Wu Tangxing, and Jiang Shaozu led to the Japanese army’s commander-in-chief, North Shirakawa, a long-time prince (the uncle of Emperor Meiji, who had fought the emperor with Emperor Meiji and participated in the expedition to Liaodong. His brother, Fushimi, loved the prince, and specially supported the soldiers from Japan. He was also attacked in southern Taiwan. He was seriously injured and died when he returned to Japan.

In order to alleviate the anti-Japanese sentiments of the Taiwanese people, the Governor of Japan, Kazuyuki Kazuyuki, gave him a good symbol and reward for his pro-Japanese symbol. He was summoned by Emperor Taisho of Japan and was enshrined as the first Taiwanese aristocratic home by the Showa Emperor. Member of Parliament, who died in the temporary meeting of the Tokyo Aristocratic Court in 1937, was entitled to the salt and sugar production privileges granted by the Japanese during his lifetime. He also enjoyed the opium distribution privilege, just like his great-grandfather.

Three generations of geeks

Yan Xianrong did two important things for Taiwan's cultural education. In 1951, he co-founded a secondary school for Taiwanese children with some social celebrities, called Taichung Middle School. This is now Taichung. The predecessor of the middle. Prior to this, there was no school in Taiwan dedicated to Taiwanese children.

Then, in 1924, cousin Qi Hongming was invited to give lectures in Taiwan. Qi Hongming and the Taiwanese family are both descendants of the ancestral rites. The grandfather of the ancestors of the 辜 铭 辜 辜 池 池 池 池 池 池 池 池 池 池 池 池 池 池 池 池 池 池 池 池 池 池 池 池 池 第六 第六 第六 第六 第六 第六 池 第六 第六 第六 第六 第六 第六 第六 第六 第六 池 池 第六However, although the two lived in the mainland and lived in Taiwan, the relationship between them was obviously very close.

Qi Hongming belongs to the descendants of overseas Chinese. He is an alternative betel nut mixed with “峇峇” because his father is not a Malay native but a Portuguese. Yan Ziyun worked for Scots Brown (Forbes Brown) and worked on the rubber plantation. Qi Hongming was deeply loved by the Browns and was accepted as a son. He was taken to Scotland at the age of thirteen and received British education. He was then sent to Germany. He studied at the University of Edinburgh and the University of Leipzig in 1873. Studying Western literature, engineering and law with the University of Paris has made him understand the basics of English, German, French, Latin and Greek. It can be said that it is a rare Western school in the East. Because he took Thomson's English name (Tangsheng), he is famous both in China and abroad.

After returning to Penang in 1880, when he was working for the British colonial government in Singapore, he met Ma Jianzhong, another foreign student studying in Singapore. Ma Jianzhong's brother Ma Xiangbo was the founder of Fudan University. After talking with him, Qi Hongming began to shake the Western world. He immediately resigned from his position in Singapore, went to China to find the eastern world in his heart, and began to stay in the robes and wear robes. After living in Hong Kong for three years, he joined the team of the Westernization Minister Zhang Zhidong and became his English aide to help him understand the world.

In the chaotic situation of the old and new in the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China, Gu Hongming always adhered to the old culture, advocated the restoration of the emperor, opposed the new cultural movement, and was surrounded by the reform forces. There was a cynical side, but there were also those who blindly advocate Westernization. Disdain. In his lifetime, the greatest achievement was the introduction of Chinese culture to the West. The odds were favored by the Japanese cultural community. After being invited to Japan in October 1924, he lived for four years, that is, in this background. In the same year, in the same year, he was invited by Yan Xianrong, who closely followed Japanese culture and fashion, and came to Taiwan to give lectures.

Yan Xianrong’s son, Zhen Zhenduo, was very impressed by the uncle. During his lifetime, he mentioned in a communication to Zhong Zhaoyun, a mainland writer who wrote the novel of Qi Hongming, that he was able to kiss Hong Ming after he entered the school at the age of five. Ku Hongming’s bedroom is separated from his bedroom by a wall. He once taught these children to his peers and taught Confucianism that “no one knows, no one knows”. Qi Hongming himself loves to eat raw steak, and he likes to smoke the Turkish Westminster flat-body gold-mouth cigarette, which is different from the usual round-body cigarette.

Ku Hongming died in Beijing shortly after returning from Japan in 1928.

Fourth, gentle and elegant

Yan Xianrong married six women in his life. He was born in his fourth house wife and his second biological son. (The pro-growth son is the father of Taiwan’s China Trust Group, Mr. Yan Song, who was born in Sanfang. There are three sons born to the Japanese wife of the sixth room. The Japanese wife is said to be the political marriage of the Japanese ruling authorities at the time. The three Chinese and Japanese mixed-race sons are the oldest Taiwanese Young and politically, it runs counter to the Chinese philosophy of Zhen Zhen.

Zhen Zhen's mother believed in Buddhism, and his gentle personality made him a gentleman and gentleman, which was in sharp contrast with his father's staunch personality.

He received Japanese school education since he was a child, but his private school teacher from Quanzhou taught his children to accept Chinese education and hired English teachers. Therefore, Zhen Zhenyu became a rare figure in the same generation with three language qualities.

As a person born in Taiwan in the Japanese occupation era, Zhen Zhenduo is a very unusual Taiwanese. He and Lee Teng-hui, who believe that they represent Taiwanese, are products of the same era. However, apart from studying at Taipei Imperial University (predecessor of Taiwan University), they have a deep understanding of Japanese culture and have suffered after Japan’s surrender. The Kuomintang’s political persecution (Zhen Zhenduo was accused of being "Taiwan independence" because of his participation in the Japanese conference, and he spent more than a year in prison; Lee Teng-hui was accused of joining the Communist Party and also sat in prison), and later was re-used by the Kuomintang. The identity of the Standing Committee of the Central Committee has become a model political figure of the Taiwanese. There is no similarity between the two.

Zhai Zhenduo not only has a deep understanding of Japan, but also possesses profound Chinese cultural literacy. He is especially proficient in Beijing opera art and can write Chinese classical poetry. Even among contemporary Chinese characters, it is rare. In contrast, Lee Teng-hui’s Chinese cultural literacy is far removed. Rough and sloppy, far from being able to look back. In the cross-strait exchanges, Zhen Zhenzhen pays attention to honesty, to soft-kun, and to understand the political philosophy of the East; Lee Teng-hui is a Japanese teacher, heavier and more varied. What is the model of Taiwanese, history has its own arbitrariness.

5. Modern Chinese history written by Chinese people at home and abroad

China's modern history is more difficult, but it is also multicolored. In particular, Taiwanese and overseas Chinese have added many wonderful chapters to this modern history. The characters from Penang to Taiwan are just a microcosm. There are many other examples like them. For example, Lin Wenqing, a descendant of Zhangzhou Haicheng Singapore immigrants who was the president of Xiamen University, and his son Lin Kesheng, father Lin Wenqing were invited by his wife Chen Jiageng to the university founded by his friend Chen Jiageng. He strongly advocated anti-Japanese, but when the Japanese invaded Nanyang and compromised with the Japanese, it was a very controversial figure, but it played an important role in the history of Singapore. His son Lin Kesheng was one of the first scientists to promote Chinese life science research at the then-established Peking Union Medical College Hospital (renamed Capital Hospital from 1971 to 1985).

Another example is the guard of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom’s Nanjing Wangfu, Chen Guixin, who worked as a coolie in the West Indies that fled to the Caribbean Sea through the fall of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. He was in Trinidad (translated to Trinidad in Taiwan) and a Beijing-born Hakka woman named Liang. Chen Youren, the son of his son, served as the foreign minister during the Beiyang government. He negotiated with the British during the Northern Expedition of the National Revolutionary Army to recover the Wuhan and Jiujiang British concessions, seventy years before the recovery of Hong Kong. He was the left-winger of the Sun Yat-sen camp with Soong Ching Ling and Liao Zhongkai (also a native of Chinese, born in San Francisco, the father of the modern celebrity Liao Chengzhi) and others, and led the Communist International to enter China. Chen Yifan, a son born to his illegitimate daughter of a French white and black slave, later became one of the important roles of Chinese foreign language propaganda during Zhou Enlai's period.

These people are not emperors, not necessarily talented people, but without them, there is no true and complete modern history. Their family history and activity deeds are worthy of more exploration by future generations.

(This article was published by Mr. Tang Jintai. It was originally published in the foreign student magazine "He Ming". The picture is the baroque former residence of Yan Zhenrong's father, Yan Xianrong, built in the home of Lukang, Taiwan.)


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