Subscribe to "麓山学社", reply to "美文", read more articles in the American series; reply to "Reading Club" and check out our New York Book Club activities.

[ Subscribe to the Lushan Institute (click on the "Shushan Society" below the title of this article, or add WeChat: lushannyc]

Tea is a culture and a philosophy. In China, tea has transcended its own material field and entered a spiritual field, becoming a kind of cultivation, a personality power, and a realm. The Chinese have cultivated their sentiments and self-cultivation through tea, and have sublimated their thoughts into a philosophical realm. Tasting and thought complement each other and become indispensable. It becomes a necessary condition for tea ceremony and constitutes the highest level of tea culture and becomes the core content of tea culture.

China is the hometown of tea, and the first ancient civilization in the world to discover tea trees and use tea. According to legend, during the Shennong period of more than 4,700 years ago, our ancestors discovered the medicinal value of tea. Later, tea gradually evolved into a drink for people's daily life, with the sayings of “rough tea and light meal”, “opening seven things, and rice, oil, salt and vinegar tea”. Today, tea has become a “national drink”. It shows that tea has a long history and its relationship with people's daily life is very close. The long-standing tea drinking habits gradually formed a rich tea culture, which infiltrated the Chinese people's magical philosophy of life.

Philosophy in tea culture

Ruler philosophy. Tea was an important beverage gradually developed during the Han and Tang Dynasties. Since the middle and Tang Dynasty, with the popularization of tea consumption, people's demand for tea has increased, and the tea commodity market is active and profitable. Therefore, since the Tang Dynasty began to collect tea tax, to Yin Guoku, the future tea tax has become one of the important sources of fiscal revenues of the past dynasties. Since the Tang Dynasty, tea tax has been a special tax, and it has been inherited from generation to generation. Become another fixed tax in addition to the national salt and iron tax.

The philosophy of tea drinkers. Chinese people drink tea, pay attention to taste, pay attention to artistic conception, and pay more attention to mood. Tea cultivators can best understand the true meaning of tea that can relax and be healthy. In the development of tea from medicinal, ritual, edible, drinking, tea from material form, sublimation to spiritual connotation. Every change in tea, every stage, has left the brand of ancient Chinese society, culture, politics and economy. The emperors of the dynasties, the literati, the literati, and the people of the Yi people can all experience the real interest in tea.

Chinese people use tea as a form of tea ceremony, tea customs, and tea art. "Customer to worship tea" is China's traditional hospitality etiquette, regardless of the North and the South, regardless of ethnicity. It is the most basic hospitality etiquette to pay a cup of fragrant tea to the guests. Tea is also a material carrier of cultural forms. It occupies a very important position in people's living habits and customs. It can be said that marriage, mourning, marriage, and jealousy are everywhere. It is especially concentrated in the rituals of marriage and customs of various ethnic groups, and is moderate in the ritual rituals of Buddhism.

Different regions and different ethnic groups have colorful tea drinking customs. The art of drinking tea and the art of drinking tea have never been better. People's tea drinking process is gradually enriched with more and more values, aesthetics and other ideological content. The Chinese are peaceful and introverted, emphasizing the personality of the individual's inner self-cultivation, consistent with the peace and quiet mentality required for tea. The highest realm of tea art and tea ceremony is always associated with leisure, quiet, calm and other life states, becoming a cultural carrier and forming the highest level of tea culture.

The philosophy embodied in the tea ceremony. The spirit of tea and tea ceremony is the core of Chinese tea culture, and it is a spirit that is sublimated by material carriers. In the profound Chinese tea culture, tea ceremony is the spiritual connotation of tea culture. In the process of tea, the understanding of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism is cultivated to cultivate sentiment, self-cultivation, and sublimation of thought into a philosophical realm, thus forming a unique tea. culture.

In the evolution of history, tea ceremony, tea ceremony, tea art, tea ceremony, tea banquet and related tea poems, tea words, tea songs, tea songs, tea dance, tea painting, tea book tea room (building and cloth decoration) are covered. Cultural systems of humanities and aesthetics, such as tea, tea crafts, literature, and opera. The tea ceremony focuses on the humanistic spirit of "Tao", and the tea art focuses on the aesthetic art of "Art". People's tea tea is designed to achieve self-cultivation and enlightenment through tea art as a medium. To get spiritual enjoyment is a kind of spiritual fit, a self-detached attitude.

Japanese tea ceremony- peace, respect, love, silence. In Japan, people have finally developed tea art into a "tea ceremony", which makes it more spiritual. It is the famous tea man Murata Murakami in the Japanese Dongshan period. He combines the spirit of tea with the spiritual characteristics of the Yamato nation and puts it in Chinese Buddhism. The introduction of Zen thought into the cultivation of tea makes the tea ceremony spirit more national and ideological. The ultimate establisher of the Japanese tea ceremony, Qian Lixiu summed up and developed the tea-making techniques and spirits of hundreds of years, and created the “Tuo Tea Road”, which clearly stated the spirit of the tea ceremony of “harmony, respect, silence and silence. From then on, the Japanese tea ceremony became one. An independent and complete cultural ideology. It can be seen that the tea ceremony in Japan completely inherits the art form of Chinese tea art, and is deeply influenced by Chinese tea culture and Zen ideology.

Korean tea ceremony- Qing, respect, harmony, and music. Koreans pay attention to rituals with tea. This is influenced by the Confucian doctrine of "benevolence" and "ritual" in Chinese tea culture. The pursuit of ritual embodied in tea is better than the pursuit of tea form and forms "Zhongzheng". spirit. The most important application of tea in North Korea is the religious ritual ceremony, the court celebration ceremony and the ceremony of folk weddings and funerals. Tea has become a symbol of etiquette in North Korea.

Chinese tea ceremony- Lian, beauty, harmony, respect. The Chinese tea ceremony has gone through many generations in the history of the millennium tea, and it is full of Chinese culture and the essence of Chinese tea. It is introverted and peaceful, and it never sways. The better the tea, the more restrained it is. The usual mentality is a kind of power, it can make people feel uncomfortable, can make people more comfortable, but also make people persevere; if you inject wisdom, you can achieve a fascinating "realm". This kind of realm is time, space, freedom, confidant, ideal, and opinion. This kind of realm is the ultimate in tea and the ultimate in spirit.

In the eyes of the literati, tea is different from other drinks. It is a "holy object" that integrates the senses and the spirit. It is a spiritual moisturizer and an undead cultural soul. Drinking tea itself is a calm choice, and only in the state of "quietness" can you appreciate the mystery. As Mr. Zhou Zuoren said in the article "Drinking Tea", "drinking tea is under the window of Wawu House. The green spring grass uses elegant and elegant ceramic tea sets. It is shared with two or three people. Dust dreams. After drinking tea, I will continue to cultivate my personal victory. No matter what the name is, I can’t help it. But by chance, it’s a must-have for a moment.” Tea culture is a spirit that is sublimated from material carriers. A realm.

In the ancient Chinese philosophy, the tea ceremony is a combination of the spirit of Confucianism and the wisdom of Taoism and inaction. It is the crystallization of oriental classical philosophy and the essence of the "tea Zen" culture.

Taoism emphasizes the unity of nature and the unity of things. Therefore, more emphasis is placed on the combination of the spirit of the self and the form of tea. A cup of tea, a cup of tea, and even a string of foam in the boiling spring can lead to a feeling. . During the Qin and Han Dynasties, the politicians and literati put forward the "advancement of honesty", and many of them became more and more honest. The tea was given the meaning of "cleanness" at this time. Since then, tea has become a symbol of “cleanness” and has penetrated the hearts of the people.

In the spiritual world of Confucian scholars, tea is a symbol of "existence and independence, and the righteousness and self-improvement." In the traditional Chinese etiquette and rituals, pay attention to filial piety. After the bride passes the door, the first thing is to tea for the in-laws and other elders. The guests came, in order to express welcoming and respect, the master must take out the toon, that is, when the order is under the order, and I can’t forget the Sven’s way to pick up the teacup and give it to the guests implicitly. The magical effect of tea is only reflected in China. Intensive, and this is precisely the reaction of all people-oriented spirit in Confucianism in daily tea. Confucianism emphasizes peace and quiet, while "benevolence" and "ritual" are the full expression of Confucianism.

The Philosophical Thought of "Medium Harmony" in Tea Culture

The golden mean is an important thought of Confucian scholars. "It's not biased in the middle; it's not easy to be mediocrity. The middle, the right way in the world. The mediocrity, the theorem of the world" Confucian scholars believe that the doctrine of the doctrine comes from the heavenly "the destiny of the destiny, the prestige of the Tao, the preaching of the monasticism ". The doctrine of the golden mean is from the highest value entity. Heaven and humanity are born in the way of heaven, and the Tao is in the human body. In the life, that is, "the road is not far away, the person is the road and the far person, can not be the road", the road Beside you, you can get a good body. The golden mean is the way to cultivate. Confucianism regards the doctrine of the mean as the core criterion for its self-cultivation, and the moderation is neutral. The middle, that is, the natural moderation, makes things in the best condition, not biased, but not too late. Harmony, that is, harmony and order, is a necessary condition for the survival and development of things. "All things are not in harmony, and the roads are parallel and not inconsistent." Things of different nature interact and live together in harmony. This is the law of nature. Pushing people, the gentleman's way is to get along with others and respect other people's opinions or opinions, respectful and modest, and not lose their principled position and difference, seek common ground while reserving differences. It is the biggest foundation in the world, and it is the way of people's access. In order to reach a neutral position, the heavens and the earth will continue to operate in their place, and all things will not be harmed. The Doctrine of the Mean is undoubtedly flaunting the values of life, harmony, harmony, harmony, and love, achieving the harmonious coexistence of people, people and nature. Therefore, the use of ritual, and expensive. Self-cultivation, to be the golden mean, will be self-disciplined. The modest gentlemen in life, through the tea, are the thought of neutrality.

The tea ceremony takes "harmony" as the highest realm, which embodies the literati's admiration for the Confucian scholars and the ideological realm deeply rooted in society and the association with tea. Through the tea of the tea, you can cultivate the introspective, peaceful, refined, and courteous personality charm. This is the must-have for the mediocrity. Confucianism used a small and big life pursuit of "Qi Jia, Governing the Country, and Ping the World" to use a code of conduct. That is the "moderate", a kind of Zhou Zheng's smooth way of doing things, thus creating a traditional Chinese culture. The peace of mind and the traditional Chinese Qingtai, which is vividly expressed in the tea culture, since ancient times, people have used tea as a matter of fact, tea to metaphor, and tea to rule the country.

Today, people can also form the boiled tea stove from Lu Yu and the inscriptions deeply appreciate the social value of Confucian doctrine of the mean. The rise of tea culture advocated a good tea-style tea custom, emphasizing the Confucian doctrine of the mean, keeping one, harmony, honesty and perfection. It reflects the wider style of tea drinking and the minds of the practitioners through the tea enlightenment avenue.

The tea ceremony also highlights another thought of the mean: "honesty" and "sincerity." "The Doctrine of the Mean" refers to "the honesty, the way of heaven; the person of honesty, the way of man." Honesty is the law of heaven, and being honest is a humane law. I once wrote in the "University": "Furun House, De Run body, heart and body fat, so the gentleman will be sincere." Wealth can modify the house to make it gorgeous, morality can cultivate people's mind and body to make people's minds noble, broad-minded and cheerful, and healthy. Therefore, people with moral cultivation must make their ideas honest. This Confucianism is expressed in the real interpersonal relationship as a courtesy of sincerity. Throughout the tea, it is the sincerity of tea worship, and it is polite and sincere to people. Throughout the ancient and modern tea events, the doctrine of the mean is the standard of tea ceremony and even the whole tea culture.

Source of this article: Reprinted in the cloud through the wake-up blog

**************************

Lushan Institute –Make ideas more refined

Lushan Institute is a non-government, non-religious, non-profit public welfare organization organized by the people. The purpose of the organization is to improve the comprehensive quality of independent thinking and judgment of the Chinese middle class and college students.

We currently have two free events per week in the New York area: Reading Dating Club (within Columbia University) and no leadership team (NYU Campus).

Scan QR Code via WeChat
To follow Official Account